The optimal BioMates integration in underlying refineries is a key technological target. Optimally, the AFP bio-oil upgrading to BioMates via a single hydroprocessing step should be conducted within or near a refinery, enabling utilization of excess energy and energy carriers (e.g. hydrogen). As hydrogen is the key driver of the hydroprocessing operating cost (> 95 % cost is the cost of H2), the overall economy will be improved by lowering the costs and enhancing the sustainability of H2 supply by envisioning refinery excess H2 (if available) and renewable H2 from solar-powered water electrolysis, satisfying H2 consumption additional requirements. Additionally, the innovative electrochemical compression of H2 from either source will enable a further decrease in the BioMates production cost, due to its superiority over the conventional mechanical compression associated with energy losses. As a result, refinery integration is expected to substantially enhance the overall sustainability of BioMates production, allowing the cost efficient direct integration of biomass in the transportation sector.
|This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 727463|